The theme we chose in this occasion to address the function of the jewel in our world and in the one of ancient societies is communication, and more precisely identity communication. Why should we speak about identity? Because, as we all know very well, this is a time of diffused political fragmentation, of strong cultural uncertainty, and communicating who we are, who we would like to be and even who we would like others to become, is an element of crucial importance. All of this can be tightly bound to jewels, both present and ancient. Seeing how the jewels were used in past times for this purpose, and how they are still used will help us, in the end, to understand ourselves.